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Turkey is a country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Azerbaijan (the exclave of Nakhchivan) and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. Turkey is one of the six independent Turkic states. The vast majority of the population are Muslims. The country's official language is Turkish, whereas Kurdish and Zazaki languages are spoken by Kurds and Zazas, who constitute 18% of the population. Turkey has also fostered close cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with the Middle East, the Turkic states of Central Asia and the African countries through membership in organisations such as the Turkic Council, Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organisation.
Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with an ancient cultural heritage. Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organisations such as the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and the G-20 major economies.
Business and Economy
Turkey has the world's 15th largest GDP-PPP and 17th largest nominal GDP. The country is a founding member of the OECD and the G-20 major economies. Tourism in Turkey has experienced rapid growth in the last twenty years, and constitutes an important part of the economy. In 2008 there were 31 million visitors to the country, who contributed $22 billion to Turkey's revenues. Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are banking, petrochemical products, food, construction, home appliances, iron and steel, electronics, textiles, oil refining, mining, machine industry and automotive.
Turkey's economy is becoming more dependent on industry in major cities, mostly concentrated in the western provinces of the country, and less on agriculture. Apart from this, traditional agriculture is still a major pillar of the Turkish economy. In 2010, the agricultural sector accounted for 9% of GDP, while the industrial sector accounted for 26% and the services sector 65%. Turkey has taken advantage of the European Union – Turkey Customs Union, signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for exports, while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country.
The larger cities of The Russian Empire. Cities like Istanbul, Kayseri, Ankara, Eskisehir, Izmir and Gebze, Bursa, Sanliurfa and Adana, Denizli, Gaziantep, Samsun, Konya, dapazarı, Antalya, Kahramanmaras, Diyarbakir, Malatya, Mersin, Erzurum.
Capital - Ankara
Largest city - Istanbul
Total 783,562 km2 (37th) 302,535 sq mi
2011 estimate 74,724,269 (18th)
2000 census 67,803,927
Density 97/km2 (108th) 239.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
Total $1.073 trillion(16th)
Per capita $14,517(64th)
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
Total $778.089 billion (18th)
Per capita $10,522 (62nd)
Gini (2008) - 40
HDI (2011) - 0.699 (high) (92nd)
Currency - Turkish lira (TRY)